Purpose This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leadership behaviors (transformational and transactional), satisfaction with the leader, and voluntary turnover intentions. In particular, it aims to investigate the mediation effect of satisfaction with the leader on the relationship between leadership behaviors and voluntary turnover organizational intentions. Design/methodology/approach Participants were 208 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I softball and volleyball assistant coaches in the USA. Using the multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X) and an organizational turnover intent questionnaire, participants evaluated their head coach's leadership behavior, satisfaction with the leader, and their own organizational turnover intent. Findings Results revealed a direct negative relationship between leadership behaviors (transformational and transactional) and voluntary organizational turnover intentions. Also, satisfaction with the leader mediated the negative relationship between leadership behaviors (transformational and transactional) and voluntary turnover intentions. Research limitations/implications The study was limited by the use of professional associations to contact participants, the timing of the data collection, and the exploration of only one of numerous possible mediating variables. Several management implications are discussed, such as managers recognizing that both leadership behaviors can be the basis for effective leadership of work teams and for mitigating voluntary turnover intentions. Originality/value The paper's principal theoretical contribution is the addition of satisfaction with the leader as a mediating variable between transformational and transactional leadership behavior and voluntary organizational turnover intentions.
Purpose This paper aims to investigate the effect of team members' informational diversity (i.e. educational and functional dissimilarity) on team cooperation, focusing on the moderating role of long-term time orientation. The authors theorize that teams' long-term orientation moderates the diversity-cooperation relationship through its effect on prosocial civic virtue behaviors. Design/methodology/approach A total of 56 teams of MBA students were surveyed and data were analyzed along with third-party records of demographic data on educational and functional backgrounds. Findings Mediated moderation analyses indicated that for teams with high long-term orientation, a negative relationship exists between informational diversity and civic virtue, while no significant relationship existed for teams with low long-term orientation. Research limitations/implications Future research should be conducted to address remaining concerns about the generalizability of the current findings and common method bias. Further research is also recommended to uncover the potential of cultural values like long-term orientation to inhibit or facilitate diversity effects. Practical implications The current findings highlight the importance of considering the context and team member orientations toward time in particular as factors impacting how teams with informational diversity operate. Managers of teams consisting of members with high long-term orientation are advised to take steps to minimize the risk experienced by team members when they engage in voice-based behaviors. Originality/value This article highlights the role of team member orientation towards time as a boundary condition of the link between team diversity and cooperation. Voice-based civic virtue behaviors are also identified as key antecedents to cooperative teams.